Cooperative Verifier-Based Testing with CoVeriTest, paper in STTT, just got published.

Publications about Interfaces for Component-Based Design

Articles in conference or workshop proceedings

  1. Dirk Beyer and Sudeep Kanav. An Interface Theory for Program Verification. In T. Margaria and B. Steffen, editors, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation (ISoLA 2020, Part 1, Rhodos, Greece, October 26-30), LNCS 12476, pages 168-186, 2020. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-61362-4_9 Link to this entry Keyword(s): CPAchecker, Software Model Checking, Interfaces for Component-Based Design Funding: DFG-CONVEY Publisher's Version PDF
    BibTeX Entry
    @inproceedings{ISoLA20b, author = {Dirk Beyer and Sudeep Kanav}, title = {An Interface Theory for Program Verification}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation (ISoLA~2020, Part~1, Rhodos, Greece, October 26-30)}, editor = {T.~Margaria and B.~Steffen}, pages = {168-186}, year = {2020}, series = {LNCS~12476}, publisher = {Springer}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-61362-4_9}, sha256 = {f15159da0e648a25e57c769639c989e68cd3407bfad10db5ee1dc25e1d2fd672}, url = {}, presentation = {}, abstract = {}, funding = {DFG-CONVEY}, keyword = {CPAchecker,Software Model Checking,Interfaces for Component-Based Design}, }
  2. Dirk Beyer, Arindam Chakrabarti, Thomas A. Henzinger, and Sanjit A. Seshia. An Application of Web-Service Interfaces. In Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2007, Salt Lake City, UT, July 9-13), pages 831-838, 2007. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (CA). doi:10.1109/ICWS.2007.32 Link to this entry Keyword(s): Interfaces for Component-Based Design Publisher's Version PDF
    Abstract
    We present a case study to illustrate our formalism for the specification and verification of the method-invocation behavior of web-service applications constructed from asynchronously interacting multi-threaded distributed components. Our model is expressive enough to allow the representation of recursion and dynamic thread creation, and yet permits the algorithmic analysis of the following two questions: (1) Does a given service satisfy a safety specification? (2) Can a given service be substituted by a another service in an arbitrary context? Our case study is based on the Amazon.com E-Commerce Services (ECS) platform.
    BibTeX Entry
    @inproceedings{ICWS07, author = {Dirk Beyer and Arindam Chakrabarti and Thomas A.~Henzinger and Sanjit A. Seshia}, title = {An Application of Web-Service Interfaces}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS~2007, Salt Lake City, UT, July 9-13)}, pages = {831-838}, year = {2007}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos~(CA)}, isbn = {0-7695-2924-0}, doi = {10.1109/ICWS.2007.32}, url = {}, pdf = {https://www.sosy-lab.org/research/pub/2007-ICWS.An_Application_of_Web-Service_Interfaces.pdf}, abstract = {We present a case study to illustrate our formalism for the specification and verification of the method-invocation behavior of web-service applications constructed from asynchronously interacting multi-threaded distributed components. Our model is expressive enough to allow the representation of recursion and dynamic thread creation, and yet permits the algorithmic analysis of the following two questions: (1) Does a given service satisfy a safety specification? (2) Can a given service be substituted by a another service in an arbitrary context? Our case study is based on the Amazon.com E-Commerce Services (ECS) platform.}, annote = {}, keyword = {Interfaces for Component-Based Design}, }
  3. Dirk Beyer, Thomas A. Henzinger, and Vasu Singh. Algorithms for Interface Synthesis. In W. Damm and H. Hermanns, editors, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification (CAV 2007, Berlin, July 3-7), LNCS 4590, pages 4-19, 2007. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-73368-3_4 Link to this entry Keyword(s): Interfaces for Component-Based Design, Software Model Checking Publisher's Version PDF
    Abstract
    A temporal interface for a software component is a finite automaton that specifies the legal sequences of calls to functions that are provided by the component. We compare and evaluate three different algorithms for automatically extracting temporal interfaces from program code: (1) a game algorithm that computes the interface as a representation of the most general environment strategy to avoid a safety violation; (2) a learning algorithm that repeatedly queries the program to construct the minimal interface automaton; and (3) a CEGAR algorithm that iteratively refines an abstract interface hypothesis by adding relevant program variables. For comparison purposes, we present and implement the three algorithms in a unifying formal setting. While the three algorithms compute the same output and have similar worst-case complexities, their actual running times may differ considerably for a given input program. On the theoretical side, we provide for each of the three algorithms a family of input programs on which that algorithm outperforms the two alternatives. On the practical side, we evaluate the three algorithms experimentally on a variety of Java libraries.
    BibTeX Entry
    @inproceedings{CAV07b, author = {Dirk Beyer and Thomas A.~Henzinger and Vasu Singh}, title = {Algorithms for Interface Synthesis}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification (CAV~2007, Berlin, July 3-7)}, editor = {W.~Damm and H.~Hermanns}, pages = {4-19}, year = {2007}, series = {LNCS~4590}, publisher = {Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg}, isbn = {978-3-540-73367-6}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-73368-3_4}, sha256 = {c8d7d6300d354fb38917b44cb9fbd3ebbad1737d75107ccc124af001677679ec}, url = {}, pdf = {https://www.sosy-lab.org/research/pub/2007-CAV.Algorithms_for_Interface_Synthesis.pdf}, abstract = {A temporal interface for a software component is a finite automaton that specifies the legal sequences of calls to functions that are provided by the component. We compare and evaluate three different algorithms for automatically extracting temporal interfaces from program code: (1) a game algorithm that computes the interface as a representation of the most general environment strategy to avoid a safety violation; (2) a learning algorithm that repeatedly queries the program to construct the minimal interface automaton; and (3) a CEGAR algorithm that iteratively refines an abstract interface hypothesis by adding relevant program variables. For comparison purposes, we present and implement the three algorithms in a unifying formal setting. While the three algorithms compute the same output and have similar worst-case complexities, their actual running times may differ considerably for a given input program. On the theoretical side, we provide for each of the three algorithms a family of input programs on which that algorithm outperforms the two alternatives. On the practical side, we evaluate the three algorithms experimentally on a variety of Java libraries.}, annote = {}, keyword = {Interfaces for Component-Based Design,Software Model Checking}, }
  4. Dirk Beyer, Arindam Chakrabarti, and Thomas A. Henzinger. Web Service Interfaces. In Proceedings of the 14th ACM International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005, Chiba, May 10-14), pages 148-159, 2005. ACM Press, New York (NY). doi:10.1145/1060745.1060770 Link to this entry Keyword(s): Interfaces for Component-Based Design Publisher's Version PDF
    Abstract
    We present a language for specifying web service interfaces. A web service interface puts three kinds of constraints on the users of the service. First, the interface specifies the methods that can be called by a client, together with types of input and output parameters; these are called signature constraints. Second, the interface may specify propositional constraints on method calls and output values that may occur in a web service conversation; these are called consistency constraints. Third, the interface may specify temporal constraints on the ordering of method calls; these are called protocol constraints. The interfaces can be used to check, first, if two or more web services are compatible, and second, if a web service A can be safely substituted for a web service B. The algorithm for compatibility checking verifies that two or more interfaces fulfill each others' constraints. The algorithm for substitutivity checking verifies that service A demands fewer and fulfills more constraints than service B.
    BibTeX Entry
    @inproceedings{WWW05, author = {Dirk Beyer and Arindam Chakrabarti and Thomas A. Henzinger}, title = {Web Service Interfaces}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th ACM International World Wide Web Conference (WWW~2005, Chiba, May 10-14)}, pages = {148-159}, year = {2005}, publisher = {ACM Press, New York~(NY)}, isbn = {1-59593-046-9}, doi = {10.1145/1060745.1060770}, url = {}, pdf = {https://www.sosy-lab.org/research/pub/2005-WWW.Web_Service_Interfaces.pdf}, abstract = {We present a language for specifying web service interfaces. A web service interface puts three kinds of constraints on the users of the service. First, the interface specifies the methods that can be called by a client, together with types of input and output parameters; these are called signature constraints. Second, the interface may specify propositional constraints on method calls and output values that may occur in a web service conversation; these are called consistency constraints. Third, the interface may specify temporal constraints on the ordering of method calls; these are called protocol constraints. The interfaces can be used to check, first, if two or more web services are compatible, and second, if a web service A can be safely substituted for a web service B. The algorithm for compatibility checking verifies that two or more interfaces fulfill each others' constraints. The algorithm for substitutivity checking verifies that service A demands fewer and fulfills more constraints than service B.}, annote = {}, keyword = {Interfaces for Component-Based Design}, }
  5. Dirk Beyer, Arindam Chakrabarti, and Thomas A. Henzinger. An Interface Formalism for Web Services. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Foundations of Interface Technologies (FIT 2005, San Francisco, CA, August 21), 2005. Link to this entry Keyword(s): Interfaces for Component-Based Design PDF Supplement
    Abstract
    Web application development using distributed components and web services presents new software integration challenges, because solutions often cross vendor, administrative, and other boundaries across which neither binary nor source code can be shared. We present a methodology that addresses this problem through a formalism for specifying and manipulating behavioral interfaces of multi-threaded open software components that communicate with each other through method calls. An interface constrains both the implementation and the user of a web service to fulfill certain assumptions that are specified by the interface. Our methodology consists of three increasingly expressive classes of interfaces. Signature interfaces specify the methods that can be invoked by the user, together with parameters. Consistency interfaces add propositional constraints, enhancing signature interfaces with the ability to specify choice and causality. Protocol interfaces specify, in addition, temporal ordering constraints on method invocations. We provide approaches to check if two or more interfaces are compatible; if a web service can be safely substituted for another one; and if a web service satisfies a specification that represents a desired behavioral property.
    BibTeX Entry
    @inproceedings{FIT05, author = {Dirk Beyer and Arindam Chakrabarti and Thomas A. Henzinger}, title = {An Interface Formalism for Web Services}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Foundations of Interface Technologies (FIT~2005, San Francisco, CA, August 21)}, pages = {}, year = {2005}, isbn = {}, url = {http://infoscience.epfl.ch/search?recid=114605&ln=en}, pdf = {https://www.sosy-lab.org/research/pub/2007-EPFL-TR002.An_Interface_Formalism_for_Web_Services.pdf}, abstract = {Web application development using distributed components and web services presents new software integration challenges, because solutions often cross vendor, administrative, and other boundaries across which neither binary nor source code can be shared. We present a methodology that addresses this problem through a formalism for specifying and manipulating behavioral interfaces of multi-threaded open software components that communicate with each other through method calls. An interface constrains both the implementation and the user of a web service to fulfill certain assumptions that are specified by the interface. Our methodology consists of three increasingly expressive classes of interfaces. Signature interfaces specify the methods that can be invoked by the user, together with parameters. Consistency interfaces add propositional constraints, enhancing signature interfaces with the ability to specify choice and causality. Protocol interfaces specify, in addition, temporal ordering constraints on method invocations. We provide approaches to check if two or more interfaces are compatible; if a web service can be safely substituted for another one; and if a web service satisfies a specification that represents a desired behavioral property.}, annote = {}, doinone = {DOI not available}, keyword = {Interfaces for Component-Based Design}, }

Internal reports

  1. Dirk Beyer, Arindam Chakrabarti, and Thomas A. Henzinger. An Interface Formalism for Web Services. Technical report MTC-REPORT-2007-002, School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC), Ecole Polytechnique Féd\ŕale de Lausanne (EPFL), December 2007. Link to this entry Keyword(s): Interfaces for Component-Based Design PDF Supplement
    Abstract
    Web application development using distributed components and web services presents new software integration challenges, because solutions often cross vendor, administrative, and other boundaries across which neither binary nor source code can be shared. We present a methodology that addresses this problem through a formalism for specifying and manipulating behavioral interfaces of multi-threaded open software components that communicate with each other through method calls. An interface constrains both the implementation and the user of a web service to fulfill certain assumptions that are specified by the interface. Our methodology consists of three increasingly expressive classes of interfaces. Signature interfaces specify the methods that can be invoked by the user, together with parameters. Consistency interfaces add propositional constraints, enhancing signature interfaces with the ability to specify choice and causality. Protocol interfaces specify, in addition, temporal ordering constraints on method invocations. We provide approaches to check if two or more interfaces are compatible; if a web service can be safely substituted for another one; and if a web service satisfies a specification that represents a desired behavioral property.
    BibTeX Entry
    @techreport{TR002-EPFL07, author = {Dirk Beyer and Arindam Chakrabarti and Thomas A. Henzinger}, title = {An Interface Formalism for Web Services}, number = {MTC-REPORT-2007-002}, year = {2007}, url = {http://infoscience.epfl.ch/search?recid=114605&ln=en}, pdf = {https://www.sosy-lab.org/research/pub/2007-EPFL-TR002.An_Interface_Formalism_for_Web_Services.pdf}, abstract = {Web application development using distributed components and web services presents new software integration challenges, because solutions often cross vendor, administrative, and other boundaries across which neither binary nor source code can be shared. We present a methodology that addresses this problem through a formalism for specifying and manipulating behavioral interfaces of multi-threaded open software components that communicate with each other through method calls. An interface constrains both the implementation and the user of a web service to fulfill certain assumptions that are specified by the interface. Our methodology consists of three increasingly expressive classes of interfaces. Signature interfaces specify the methods that can be invoked by the user, together with parameters. Consistency interfaces add propositional constraints, enhancing signature interfaces with the ability to specify choice and causality. Protocol interfaces specify, in addition, temporal ordering constraints on method invocations. We provide approaches to check if two or more interfaces are compatible; if a web service can be safely substituted for another one; and if a web service satisfies a specification that represents a desired behavioral property.}, annote = {A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the First International Workshop on Foundations of Interface Technologies (FIT 2005, San Francisco, CA, August 21).
    Online: http://infoscience.epfl.ch/search?recid=114605&ln=en
    }, institution = {School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC), Ecole Polytechnique F\'ed\'erale de Lausanne (EPFL)}, keyword = {Interfaces for Component-Based Design}, month = {December}, }
    Additional Infos
    A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the First International Workshop on Foundations of Interface Technologies (FIT 2005, San Francisco, CA, August 21).
    Online: http://infoscience.epfl.ch/search?recid=114605&ln=en
  2. Dirk Beyer, Thomas A. Henzinger, and Vasu Singh. Three Algorithms for Interface Synthesis: A Comparative Study. Technical report MTC-REPORT-2006-001, School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC), Ecole Polytechnique Féd\ŕale de Lausanne (EPFL), May 2006. Link to this entry Keyword(s): Interfaces for Component-Based Design, Software Model Checking PDF Supplement
    Abstract
    A temporal interface for a system component is a finite automaton that specifies the legal sequences of input events. We evaluate and compare three different algorithms for automatically extracting the temporal interface from the transition graph of a component: (1) a game algorithm that computes the interface as a representation of the most general environment strategy to avoid a safety violation; (2) a learning algorithm that repeatedly queries the component to construct the minimal interface automaton; and (3) a CEGAR algorithm that iteratively refines an abstract interface hypothesis by adding relevant state information from the component. Since algorithms (2) and (3) have been published in different software contexts, for comparison purposes, we present the three algorithms in a uniform finite-state setting. We furthermore extend the three algorithms to construct maximally permissive interface automata, which accept all legal input sequences. While the three algorithms have similar worst-case complexities, their actual running times differ greatly depending on the component whose interface is computed. On the theoretical side, we provide families of components that exhibit exponential differences in the performance of the three algorithms. On the practical side, we evaluate the three algorithms experimentally on a variety of real world examples. Not surprisingly, the experimental evaluation confirms the theoretical expectation: learning performs best if the minimal interface automaton is small; CEGAR performs best if only few component variables are needed to prove an interface hypothesis safe and permissive; and the direct (game) algorithm outperforms both approaches if neither is the case.
    BibTeX Entry
    @techreport{TR001-EPFL06, author = {Dirk Beyer and Thomas A.~Henzinger and Vasu Singh}, title = {Three Algorithms for Interface Synthesis: A Comparative Study}, number = {MTC-REPORT-2006-001}, year = {2006}, url = {http://infoscience.epfl.ch/search.py?recid=85675&ln=en}, pdf = {https://www.sosy-lab.org/research/pub/2006-EPFL-TR001.Three_Algorithms_for_Interface_Synthesis_A_Comparative_Study.pdf}, abstract = {A temporal interface for a system component is a finite automaton that specifies the legal sequences of input events. We evaluate and compare three different algorithms for automatically extracting the temporal interface from the transition graph of a component: (1) a game algorithm that computes the interface as a representation of the most general environment strategy to avoid a safety violation; (2) a learning algorithm that repeatedly queries the component to construct the minimal interface automaton; and (3) a CEGAR algorithm that iteratively refines an abstract interface hypothesis by adding relevant state information from the component. Since algorithms (2) and (3) have been published in different software contexts, for comparison purposes, we present the three algorithms in a uniform finite-state setting. We furthermore extend the three algorithms to construct maximally permissive interface automata, which accept all legal input sequences. While the three algorithms have similar worst-case complexities, their actual running times differ greatly depending on the component whose interface is computed. On the theoretical side, we provide families of components that exhibit exponential differences in the performance of the three algorithms. On the practical side, we evaluate the three algorithms experimentally on a variety of real world examples. Not surprisingly, the experimental evaluation confirms the theoretical expectation: learning performs best if the minimal interface automaton is small; CEGAR performs best if only few component variables are needed to prove an interface hypothesis safe and permissive; and the direct (game) algorithm outperforms both approaches if neither is the case.}, annote = {Online: http://infoscience.epfl.ch/search.py?recid=85675&ln=en
    }, institution = {School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC), Ecole Polytechnique F\'ed\'erale de Lausanne (EPFL)}, keyword = {Interfaces for Component-Based Design,Software Model Checking}, month = {May}, }
    Additional Infos

Theses and projects (PhD, MSc, BSc, Project)

  1. Chic: Checking Interface Compatibility. 2004. Link to this entry Keyword(s): Software Development Project, Interfaces for Component-Based Design Supplement
    BibTeX Entry
    @misc{Chic, title = {{{\sc Chic}}: Checking Interface Compatibility}, year = {2004}, url = {http://www.sosy-lab.org/~dbeyer/Chic/}, keyword = {Software Development Project,Interfaces for Component-Based Design}, role = {Contributor, new formalism, and verification algorithm}, }

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